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Hallmarks of Cancer

  • Image:Hallmarks, Overview
    Hallmarks, Overview
    Cancer is a disease that affects people of all nationalities and age groups and all cancers start with mutations in one cell.
  • Image:Hallmarks, Growing uncontrollably
    Hallmarks, Growing uncontrollably
    Professor Robert Weinberg explains that cancer cells have to learn how to grow in the absence of growth stimulatory signals that normal cells require from their environment.
  • Image:Hallmarks, Evading death
    Hallmarks, Evading death
    Professor Robert Weinberg discusses how cancer cells have to learn how to avoid the process of programmed cell death known as apoptosis carried out in normal cells.
  • Image:Hallmarks, Processing nutrients
    Hallmarks, Processing nutrients
    Professor Robert Weinberg explains how cancer cells have to learn how to become angiogenic, that is to say attract blood vessels to grow into the tumor mass.
  • Image:Hallmarks, Becoming immortal
    Hallmarks, Becoming immortal
    Professor Robert Weinberg explains how normal cells can only double a certain limited number of times; and cancer cells have to learn how to proliferate indefinitely, i.e, they have to become immortalized.
  • Image:Hallmarks, Invading tissues
    Hallmarks, Invading tissues
    Professor Robert Weinberg, explains that cancer cells have to learn how to invade and metastasize.
  • Image:Hallmarks, Avoiding detection
    Hallmarks, Avoiding detection
    Bruce Stillman, Ph.D. is president and chief executive officer of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, explains that there are two adaptive immune responses, and those immune responses adapt to changes in cells in our body whether they be by infection or other.
  • Image:Hallmarks, Promoting mutations
    Hallmarks, Promoting mutations
    Bruce Stillman, Ph.D., president of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, explains that genomic instability is a characteristic of cancer cells.

Causes and Prevention

  • Image:Causes, Overview
    Causes, Overview
    This section reviews how epidemiologists look for cancer "hot spots" - regions with high cancer rates.
  • Image:Causes, Smoking, all sections
    Causes, Smoking, all sections
    This section explains that lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and it is almost entirely preventable, since the vast majority of cases are due to cigarette smoking.
  • Image:Causes, Smoking: Tobacco history
    Causes, Smoking: Tobacco history
    This section reviews the history of the tobacco plant Nicotiana rustica which grows wild in the Americas.
  • Image:Causes, Smoking: Lung cancer epidemic
    Causes, Smoking: Lung cancer epidemic
    This section covers the smoking epidemic in the U.S. and the 163,000 Americans that die each year from lung cancer, which is greater than deaths caused by prostate, breast, colon, and pancrease cancers combined.
  • Image:Causes, Smoking: Killers in smoke
    Causes, Smoking: Killers in smoke
    In this section the suspected cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) - including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrosamines, and heavy metals found in cigarettes will be introduced.
  • Image:Causes, Smoking: "Smoking gun"
    Causes, Smoking: "Smoking gun"
    This section reviews K-ras and p53, two genes most frequently mutated in smoking-related lung cancers, one tar component, benzo[a]pyrene, is specifically linked to known mutations in these genes.
  • Image:Causes, Smoking: K-ras
    Causes, Smoking: K-ras
    This section explains how the protein produced by the K-ras gene is a tumor €œactivator.€
  • Image:Causes, Smoking: p53
    Causes, Smoking: p53
    This series of animations shows how mutations in the p53 gene are found in 70% of lung tumors, the highest rate for any cancer.
  • Image:Causes, Smoking: Nicotine connection
    Causes, Smoking: Nicotine connection
    Nicotine has long been known to be the habit-forming drug in cigareette smoke, but recent research shows that nicotine also works with other components of smoke to promote cancer formation.
  • Image:Causes, Smoking: Prevention
    Causes, Smoking: Prevention
    In this section learn about the interventions and research being carried out to control cancer.
  • Image:Causes, Inheritance
    Causes, Inheritance
    All cancers are genetic, in that cancers are caused by genetic mutations in genes that lead to malignancy.
  • Image:Causes, Inheritance: Cancer gene types
    Causes, Inheritance: Cancer gene types
    This section identifies that a cancer gene alters the normal functioning of a protein, and there are three major categories of cancer genes.
  • Image:Causes, Inheritance: Colon cancer
    Causes, Inheritance: Colon cancer
    Familial colon cancer was long thought to be inherited; however a complete understanding of its causes awaited the discovery that specific genetic mutations confer a large increase in susceptibility to these types of cancers.
  • Image:Causes, Inheritance: Many steps to cancer
    Causes, Inheritance: Many steps to cancer
    In Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, a complex cascade of events leads from an initial mutation in a €œgatekeeper€ gene, eventually to a malignant tumor.
  • Image:Causes, Diet
    Causes, Diet
    In order to identify cancer causes and prevention strategies, researchers conduct a cohort of studies where they collect information from large groups of individuals over many years.
  • Image:Causes, Diet: Diet and cancer
    Causes, Diet: Diet and cancer
    In this section learn how diet can contribute and or be linked to the development of prostate cancer.
  • Image:Causes, Diet: Cause
    Causes, Diet: Cause
    Meat cooked at high temperatures can produce chemicals that are damaging to cells and DNA.
  • Image:Causes, Diet: Prevention
    Causes, Diet: Prevention
    In addition to enzymes produced by the body, certain components in food can also react with damaging chemicals, and an increased consumption of these foods may lower a person€™s risk of cancer development.
  • Image:Causes, mold
    Causes, mold
    Aflatoxin, a byproduct of molds, is a potent cancer-causing agent. Long-term exposure to aflatoxin has been linked to increased incidence of liver cancer.
  • Image:Causes, Mold: Aflatoxin
    Causes, Mold: Aflatoxin
    In this section learn how Aflatoxin a contaminating byproduct of mold caused liver cancer in animals and solicited strict guidelines to regulate the levels of Aflatoxin in the U.S. food supply today.
  • Image:Causes, Mold: Incidence
    Causes, Mold: Incidence
    Mold-contaminated crops can be a serious problem especially in countries where proper storage facilities are limited.
  • Image:Causes, Mold: Aflatoxin action
    Causes, Mold: Aflatoxin action
    Aflatoxin causes DNA damage and with prolonged exposure to aflatoxin, cells accumulate DNA mutations and thus are at increased risk of developing into cancer cells.
  • Image:Causes, Mold: Prevention
    Causes, Mold: Prevention
    In this section learn about inexpensive and safe substances being investigated that may decrease the risk of liver cancer.
  • Image:Causes, Viruses: HPV
    Causes, Viruses: HPV
    In this section learn how viruses contribute to cancer development.
  • Image:Causes, Viruses: HPV and cell cycle
    Causes, Viruses: HPV and cell cycle
    Professor Harlow explains that over the years, we have learned that the cell cycle can easily be divided in a couple of major decision points or action points where cells specifically do a series of necessary tasks.
  • Image:Causes, Sunlight
    Causes, Sunlight
    In this section learn that ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is the major cause to skin cancer.

Diagnosis and Treatment

  • Image:Diagnosis, Pathology
    Diagnosis, Pathology
    Pathology has long been associated with medical development and patient treatment and care. Throughout history pathologists have been trained to observe and recognize abnormalities to diagnose and treat the condition.
  • Image:Diagnosis, Pharmacogenetics
    Diagnosis, Pharmacogenetics
    In this section pharmacogenetics is discussed and how people can have very different responses to the same drug and treatment.
  • Image:Diagnosis, Targeted therapies
    Diagnosis, Targeted therapies
    Conventional cancer drugs are cellular poisons that block replication or some other aspect of cell growth. These drugs affect all cells €“ healthy or cancerous.
  • Image:Diagnosis, Targeted therapies: Blocking receptors
    Diagnosis, Targeted therapies: Blocking receptors
    In this section, hear what experts have to say about drugs that disrupt the function of receptors on a cell's surface.
  • Image:Diagnosis, Targeted therapies: Targeting activators
    Diagnosis, Targeted therapies: Targeting activators
    In this section learn that tyrosine kinases are a family of activator proteins that trigger the cell signaling process leading to cell growth and division.

Pathways to Cancer

  • Image:Diagnosis, Pathology
    Diagnosis, Pathology
    Pathology has long been associated with medical development and patient treatment and care. Throughout history pathologists have been trained to observe and recognize abnormalities to diagnose and treat the condition.
  • Image:Diagnosis, Pharmacogenetics
    Diagnosis, Pharmacogenetics
    In this section pharmacogenetics is discussed and how people can have very different responses to the same drug and treatment.
  • Image:Diagnosis, Targeted therapies
    Diagnosis, Targeted therapies
    Conventional cancer drugs are cellular poisons that block replication or some other aspect of cell growth. These drugs affect all cells €“ healthy or cancerous.
  • Image:Diagnosis, Targeted therapies: Blocking receptors
    Diagnosis, Targeted therapies: Blocking receptors
    In this section, hear what experts have to say about drugs that disrupt the function of receptors on a cell's surface.
  • Image:Diagnosis, Targeted therapies: Targeting activators
    Diagnosis, Targeted therapies: Targeting activators
    In this section learn that tyrosine kinases are a family of activator proteins that trigger the cell signaling process leading to cell growth and division.